Cities have long been connected with processes of bureaucratisation and state-building, as indeed they have long been linked to conflict and war. In bringing these two associations together we engaged with the historical sociology of Charles Tilly and research in the CAFS programme confirmed that the intersection of cities, states and violent conflict remains significant, although it is far more complex in today’s world. Cities have changed, states have changed, and armed conflict itself has changed. In this respect, cities are increasingly critical locations of conflict, both directly and indirectly. In the video below, Professor Jo Beall discusses some of the finding from the “Conflict and State Fragility” project that she has directed over the last 10 years.